2009. május 8., péntek

Flat Surface RR from Roller Testing by Tom Anhalt

The power required to turn a wheel on a drum at a specific speed is governed by the equation:

PDrum = CrrDrum x VDrum x M x g (a)


PDrum = Power required to turn drum (Watts)

CrrDrum = Coefficient of Rolling Resistance of the tire on the drum (unitless)

VDrum = The tangential velocity of the drum (m/s)

M = The mass load of the wheel on the drum (kg)

g = gravitational constant = 9.81 m/s2

Rearranging equation (a) to solve for the Crr of the tire on the drum results in:

CrrDrum = PDrum / (VDrum x M x g) (b)

The the contact patch deformation of a tire of a specific diameter and a roller of a specific diameter can be equated to the deformation of an equivalent diameter tire on a flat surface using the following equation [Bicycling Science, 3rd edition, pg 211]:

1/req = 1/r1 + 1/r2 (c)


req = equivalent wheel radius

r1 = tested wheel radius

r2 = tested drum radius

For convenience purposes, this equation can be rewritten using the appropriate diameters (r x 2) and is then:

1/Deq = 1/Dwheel + 1/DDrum (d)

For a tire of a given construction, it has been shown that the Crr varies inversely proportionally to the wheel radius, and thus the wheel diameter, in the range of Dwheel0.66 to Dwheel0.75 [Bicycling Science, 3rd edition, pg. 226]. To simplify for this purpose, the assumption is made that the Crr varies inversely proportionally to Dwheel0.7

From this, it can be then written that:

Crrflat / CrrDrum = Deq0.7 / Dwheel0.7 (e)

Equation (e) can be combined with (d) and rearranged to give:

Crrflat = CrrDrum x [ 1 / (1 + Dwheel/DDrum)]0.7 (f)

Substituting equation (b) for CrrDrum in equation (f) results in:

Crrflat = [PDrum / (VDrum x M x g)] x [ 1 / (1 + Dwheel/DDrum)]0.7 (g)

Mass Correction Factor:

When doing Crr testing on rollers, the mass loading of the wheel or wheels will need to be corrected due to front-rear loading ratio and the fact that 2 offset rollers contact the rear wheel, thereby increasing the normal force on the rollers due to geometry effects.

Rear Wheel Only Case - When the test is done using a front fork mount and only the rear wheel contacting the rear rollers of the test setup, the following “effective mass” (Meff) needs to be calculated and substituted for M in equation (g) :

Meff = Mrear / cos [arcsin (X/(Dwheel + DDrum))] (h)


X = separation distance of rear roller axles (consistent units with Dwheel and DDrum)

Mrear = vertical mass load on rear wheel (kg)

Front and Rear Rollers - When the test is performed using both the front and rear rollers, the following Meff needs to be calculated and substituted for M in equation (g) :

Meff = Mfront + Mrear / cos [arcsin (X/(Dwheel + DDrum))] (i)


Mfront = vertical mass load on the front wheel (kg)

Power Correction:

Depending on the method of power measurement, the following offsets can be used to account for drivetrain and drum rotation losses in the calculation of PDrum for use in equation (g):

For Powertap - PDrum = PPowertap – 5W (accounts for drum bearing losses) (j)

For SRM - PDrum = PSRM – 15W (accounts for drum bearings and driveline losses) (k)


PPowertap and PSRM are the power readouts (W) from the appropriate power meters.

These power offsets are somewhat arbitrary and should be modified if better data is known about the particular test setup.

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